brought with them firearms and other technologies which the King
of Kongo was more than happy to trade for ivory, minerals and
slaves with the Portuguese finding slaves easier to trade and
export to the Portuguese colony in Brazil than their
original objective of gold.
of the Kingdom of Kongo which covered modern day northern Angola
was the Kingdom of Ndongo which is believed to have been a
separate kingdom subordinate to Kongo itself. Ndono was ruled by
a king, 'Ngola' from which Angola takes its name.
Over the years, and with
numerous setbacks not least because of the Dutch, British and
French, the Portuguese established trading posts in Ndono and a fortified
Luanda in 1587. Their conquests saw them proclaim a colony in
Angola which was to last for four hundred years, though, in
truth they did not exercise any actual administrative control
over areas outside the coast until the twentieth century. And
the basis for this colony was slavery.
In fact, until the slave trade was abolished in 1836 it is
estimated that Portugal sent over a million Angolans to Brazil
fuelling resentment at the incomers that fed the later clamour
for independence. During this period the Portuguese built
railroads, ports together with towns and cities. From 1885 as part of the
for Africa, Portugal
consolidated its hold over the country which saw ongoing local
resistance, particularly to enforced labour which had
technically replaced slavery.