source has always been a
dispute because the River Nile has two main tributaries; the
White Nile whose source is believed to be the Ruvyironza River
of Burundi which flows into Tanzania's Kagera River and from
there into Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake and then into
South Sudan and the Blue Nile which discharges from Lake Tana
in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast.
The two rivers meet near the capital of Khartoum in Sudan (below). You can see
why the two joining rivers are called Blue and White Nile by a look at this
White Nile gets it name from the light grey sediment that's suspended in its
water whilst the Blue Nile flows through more fertile soil.
Nile became important many thousands of years ago as climate
change swept across northern Africa. Scientists believe that in
a matter of just a few hundred years around 4000BCE the
grasslands of northern Africa turned to desert as rainfall
ceased and temperatures soared.
Certainly, in what are now totally hospitable areas where no
life can survive, there are rock art and engravings showing
animals and water scenes in the area.